CIANOBACTERIAS: UNA ALTERNATIVA PARA AUMENTAR LA COMPETITIVIDAD AGRÍCOLA Y SEGURIDAD ALIMENTARIA DE LA GUAJIRA COLOMBIANA

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Ruth Hernández Benítez Daldo Araujo Vidal

Resumen

Este trabajo planteó un aislamiento de Cianobacterias presentes en los cultivos de Arroz, con la finalidad de determinar la actividad promotora de crecimiento de estas, bajo condiciones de invernadero en cultivos de Frijol, Maíz y Arroz. Las cianobacterias se obtuvieron del muestreo realizado en los campos arroceros de los municipios de Fonseca, Distracción y Dibulla del departamento de la Guajira. Inicialmente se hizo una identificación de las especies presentes en los suelos de los arrozales. Las cepas se cultivaron en medio BG-11. Las especies encontradas fueron Gloeocapsa sp, Oscillatoria sp y Anabaena sp siendo esta última una de las que aporta mayor cantidad de nitrógeno a la planta, la cual fija nitrógeno de 10 a 50 Kg N/ha/año; sin embargo, fabrica potentes sustancias neurotóxicas. Para determinar la actividad promotora de crecimiento de cianobacterias en las plantas de ají, tomate, frijol, maíz y Arroz se realizaron 4 parcelas experimentales con semillas certificadas. Los lotes utilizados fueron de 1 m2 en el centro Agroempresarial y Acuícola sede Riohacha, los cuales se inocularon dos especies de cianobacterias del género de Gloeocapsa sp y Oscillatoria sp y fueron comparados frente a un Blanco. Las cianobacterias incrementan la fertilidad del suelo, debido a que son organismos fijadores de Nitrógeno capaces de generar su propio fotosintato el cual las hace especialmente atractiva para ser usadas como biofertilizante.


Palabras clave: Bioprospección microalgal, Cianobacterias, Guajira Colombiana.


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ABSTRACT 


This work posed an isolation of cyanobacteria present in rice crops, with the purpose of determining the growth promoting activity of these, under greenhouse conditions in Bean, Maize and Rice crops. The cyanobacteria were obtained from the sampling done in the rice fields of the municipalities of Fonseca, Distracción and Dibulla of the department of Guajira. Initially an identification of the species present in the soils of the rice fields was made. Strains were grown on BG-11 medium. The species found were Gloeocapsa sp, Oscillatoria sp and Anabaena sp being one of the ones that provides the greatest amount of nitrogen to the plant, which fixes nitrogen from 10 to 50 kg N / ha / year; however, it makes potent neurotoxic substances. To determine the growth promoting activity of cyanobacteria in the pepper, tomato, bean, maize and rice plants, four experimental plots with certified seeds were made. The lots used were 1 m2 at the Agroenterprise and Aquaculture center Riohacha, which were inoculated two species of cyanobacteria of the genus Gloeocapsa sp and Oscillatoria sp and were compared against a White. Cyanobacteria increase soil fertility because they are nitrogen fixing organisms capable of generating their own photosynthesis which makes them especially attractive for use as a biofertilizer. 


Key words: Microalgal bioprospection, Cyanobacteria


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HERNÁNDEZ BENÍTEZ, Ruth; ARAUJO VIDAL, Daldo. CIANOBACTERIAS: UNA ALTERNATIVA PARA AUMENTAR LA COMPETITIVIDAD AGRÍCOLA Y SEGURIDAD ALIMENTARIA DE LA GUAJIRA COLOMBIANA. Ciencia e Ingenieria, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 2, p. 14, nov. 2017. ISSN 2389-9484. Disponible en: <http://revistas.uniguajira.edu.co/rev/index.php/cei/article/view/55>. Fecha de acceso: 13 july 2020
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